The Michigan National Guard (MNG) is seeking to double the size of Camp Grayling, the largest National Guard base in the country, to accommodate for its expanded role in training the U.S. military in “all-domain warfighting.” But its plans are drawing widespread opposition right here at home, where its consequences would be most severe.
Since the MNG sent its proposal to the Michigan Department of National Resources (DNR) in June 2022, residents of Northern Michigan have been awaiting a final decision. If the state approves the expansion, it will be granting the MNG a 20-year lease to use 162,000 acres of public land for “drone operation, cyber, electronic warfare, space and communication system installation and operation.”
A growing chorus of townships neighboring the base and conservation groups have raised concerns about increasing military activities in their community. According to data by the conservation group Au Sable River Property Owners Association, more than 50 local governments neighboring the base have passed resolutions against the expansion. The group’s website lists reasons for opposition including risk of pollution, disruption of recreation, and economic challenges such as infrastructure degradation and decrease in tourism.
The Michigan Sierra Club published a letter which shares many of these concerns. Conservation Chair of the Sierra Club Michigan Chapter, Fred Miller, explained the Sierra Club’s concerns.
“The Sierra Club has insisted that any new use of public land should be limited to a clear necessity, and should be balanced by the return of similar land to public use and a strong commitment and plan to maintain natural ecosystems,” Miller told RS. “The expansion plan met none of these criteria. Furthermore, it came on the heels of PFAS pollution from the same base that has impacted lakes and streams in the area, and many reports that current trainings in forests now available to the base have resulted in ecosystem damage from hazardous wire and other materials left behind, with little attention to protecting the land and wildlife and little oversight.”
The National Guard’s Expansion Over Centuries
According to Michigan National Guard State and Public Affairs Officer, Capt. Andrew Layton, Camp Grayling is in a unique position to hold training for all-domain warfare.
“Camp Grayling is part of the National All-Domain Warfighting Center, which is one of the only locations in the Department of Defense that has the existing infrastructure to allow training in any seasonal condition in each of the five domains of warfare: air, sea, land, space and cyberspace,” Layton told RS. “As such, there is no other location where this type of training could be accomplished with the same value for training audiences and taxpayers.”
Layton’s comments raise a question, why is an institution largely under state control being used for all-domain warfare? The answer is tied to the expansion of the National Guard’s activities in the centuries since it was founded.
The National Guard traces its origin to 1636 when the Massachusetts Bay Colony created militia regiments. Throughout the founding of the United States, more of these militias were formed. With the passage of the Dick Act in 1903, the various state militias were formally organized as a National Guard which would receive federal support and be subjected to more federal control. Even as the Guard developed as a more organized reserve force with state and federal responsibilities, its missions remained largely domestic up until the start of the 21st century. Like much of U.S. national security policy, the use of the National Guard greatly expanded during the “War on Terror.”
Since 9/11 more than one million Guardsmen were deployed overseas, many of them having been deployed multiple times. Nearly half of all U.S. troops sent to Iraq and Afghanistan from 2001 to 2021 were from the National Guard and reserves, and Guardsmen made up 18.4 percent of the casualties in these wars. The MNG is no exception. In 2022 alone the Michigan Air National Guard was deployed on 88 missions worldwide, spanning 10 different countries, and the Michigan Army National Guard was deployed on two different missions in the Middle East.
A Michigan Base Focused On Great Powers
Along with training Michigan Guardsmen for great power competition by seeking thousands more acres to practice all domain warfare, Camp Grayling is a hub for training other states’ reserve forces, active duty personnel, and foreign militaries.
In 2022 alone, Camp Grayling trained 10,094 active duty personnel from the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines, as well as 157,640 reserve components. Those trained came from 29 different states and from other countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Liberia, and the Netherlands. On February 23, The Wall Street Journal reported that Camp Grayling was training a contingent of the Taiwanese military with a focus on China.
Layton said that these international deployments necessitate an increase in equipment and training.
“As we speak, more than 1,000 Michigan National Guard Airmen and Soldiers are presently deployed and away from their families,” he told RS. “These are sons, daughters, friends and neighbors who are potentially in harm’s way. The profession of service comes with an obligation to prepare our men and women for the most complex environment they might ever have to face with the right equipment and training.”
Even in the twilight of the “War on Terror,” the National Guard continues to be integrated in U.S. war plans. A report on the National Guard’s activities in 2022 highlighted the force’s role in supplying weapons to Ukraine and training Ukrainian soldiers in Germany.
The MNG’s proposed expansion of Camp Grayling is in line with a national security strategy centered around “geopolitical competition between the major powers.” Sen. Gary Peters (D-Mich.) even wrote in support of the expansion so that Michigan can boost the U.S. military’s Arctic readiness and “maintain a strategic edge against competitors such as the Chinese and Russian governments.”
Meanwhile, Miller said the MNG has been largely unresponsive to the concerns that the Northern Michigan community has raised.
“We do not know the equipment that might be used, the vehicles and aircraft that would be part of maneuvers or the numbers of participants in the expansion area,” Miller told RS. “We have no specifics on what steps would be taken by the National Guard or the DNR to better police the use and abuse of lands by the Guard maneuvers. The people in the area and throughout the state who have voiced concerns have only received the vaguest reassurances and promises, and little to no answers to specific questions.”
The DNR has not made a final decision on the expansion, but the department’s interim director recently announced that they are working with the MNG to “winnow” the proposal. Many of the communities neighboring the base have begun organizing around the slogans, “Not one more acre” and “no compromise,” and may see even a smaller-scale expansion as too large of a concession. So long as great power competition remains the focus of U.S. national security, such expansions will likely remain on the agenda.
Sam Carliner is a freelance journalist with a focus on U.S. foreign policy and climate change. He holds a bachelor's degree in journalism from Montclair State University. His writing has appeared in various publications including Teen Vogue and Salon, and he has done original reporting for a range of outlets including NJ.com and Waging Nonviolence. He currently works at CODEPINK where he writes and designs social media content spanning a range of foreign policy issues.
The Camp Grayling minuteman stands watch at Camp Grayling, Mich., Sept. 4, 2014. (Courtesy Asset)
Left-to-right: Senator-elect Ted Budd (R-N.C.); Senator Mitch McConnell (R-KY), the Senate Minority Leader; Senator-elect Katie Britt (R-AL); and Senator-elect J.D. Vance (R-OH) pose for a photo before meeting in Leader McConnell’s office, at the U.S. Capitol, in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday, November 15, 2022. (Graeme Sloan/Sipa USA)
The so-called GOP “civil war” over the role the United States should play in the world made headlines earlier this week when the Senate finally passed a national security supplemental that provides $60 billion in aid for Ukraine and $14 billion for Israel.
The legislation, which was supported by President Joe Biden and the overwhelming majority of the Senate’s Democratic caucus, proved more controversial among Republicans. Twenty-two GOP Senators voted in favor of the legislation, while 27 opposed it.
An analysis of the votes shows an interesting generational divide within the Republican caucus.
Each of the five oldest Republicans in the Senate — and nine of the ten oldest — voted in favor of the supplemental spending package. Conversely, the six youngest senators, and 12 of the 14 youngest, opposed it.
Equally striking was the breakdown of votes among Republicans based on when they assumed their current office. Of the 49 sitting GOP Senators, 30 were elected before Donald Trump first became the party’s presidential candidate in 2016. Eighteen of those 30 supported the aid legislation. Of the members who came to office in 2017 or later, only four voted to advance the bill, while 15 voted against.
The difference in votes among those elected since 2016 is likely partly attributable to Trump’s unconventional approach to foreign policy. The Republican party establishment during the Cold War and Global War on Terror is often associated with hawkishness, including towards Russia. While the party has always carried some skepticism toward foreign aid, some of the most significant spending increases have taken place during the presidencies of Republicans Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush.
Trump, however, won in 2016 in part for his open disdain for mission creep after the GWOT, what he called the failed war in Iraq, and foreign aid he believed made countries dependents rather than reciprocal partners and allies.
“[Trump] certainly created the cognitive space,” Brandan Buck, a U.S. Army veteran and historian of GOP foreign policy, tells RS. “He's more of an intuitive thinker than a person of principle, but I think him being on the scene, prying open the Overton window has allowed for a greater array of dissenting voices.”
Others have argued that the trends are perhaps also indicative of the loyalty that Republicans who assumed their offices during the Trump presidency feel toward him. Trump spoke out forcefully against the legislation in advance of the vote.
“WE SHOULD NEVER GIVE MONEY ANYMORE WITHOUT THE HOPE OF A PAYBACK, OR WITHOUT “STRINGS” ATTACHED. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA SHOULD BE “STUPID” NO LONGER!,” the former president wrote on the social media platform Truth Social the weekend before the vote.
The vote cannot only be explained by ideology, as some typically hawkish allies of Trump, like Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) ultimately voted against the package. Graham is a staunch supporter of Israel, has voted for previous Ukraine aid packages, and in the past called aid for Ukraine “a good investment” and “the best money we’ve ever spent.” By the time the vote on the most recent spending package came around, Graham was lamenting the lack of border security provisions and echoing Trump’s argument that aid to Ukraine should be a “loan.”
Meanwhile, Senators took note of the generational gap, and the debate spilled over into the public. .
“Nearly every Republican Senator under the age of 55 voted NO on this America Last bill,” wrote Sen. Eric Schmitt (R-Mo.), 48, on the social media platform X. “Things are changing just not fast enough.” Schmitt was elected in 2022.
“Youthful naivety is bliss, the wisdom of age may save the west,” retorted Sen. Kevin Cramer (R-N.D.) “Reagan may be dead, but his doctrine saved the world during less dangerous times than these. If the modern Marx (Putin for the youngsters) restores the USSR while we pretend it’s not our problem, God help us.” Cramer, 63, was sworn in in 2019, making him one of the handful of recently elected senators to support the aid legislation.
“I like Kevin, but come on, man, have some self-awareness,” Sen. J.D. Vance fired back. “This moment calls out for many things, but boomer neoconservatism is not among them.”
Vance, who at 39 is the youngest Republican member of the Senate, noted in his post that “the fruits of this generation in American leadership is: quagmire in Afghanistan, war in Iraq under false pretenses.” He said younger Americans were disillusioned with that track record.
Buck, who served several tours in the Afghanistan war, and whose research includes generational trends in U.S. foreign policy thinking, pointed out that there is strong historical precedent for believing that age and generation affect how members of Congress view America’s role in the world.
“It's certainly not unusual for there to be generational trends in foreign policy thinking, especially within the Republican Party,” Buck told RS. Following the end of World War II, he said, it took “a full churning” of the conservative movement to replace old-school non-interventionist Republicans and to get the party in line with the Cold War consensus. “I think what we're seeing now is something similar but in reverse with a generation of conservatives.”
He added that the failures of the War on Terror resulted in a deep skepticism of the national security state and the Republican party establishment. Opinion polling and trends show that the American public that grew up either during or in the shadow of the disastrous military campaigns in the Greater Middle East is generally opposed to military intervention and more questioning of American institutions.
“All the energy on FP [foreign policy] in the GOP right now is with the younger generation that wants fundamental transformation of USFP [U.S. foreign policy],” noted Justin Logan, director of defense and foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, on X. “The self-satisfied, insular neocons who loathe their voters’ FP views are a dying breed.”
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Volodymyr Zelensky speaks at the Munich Security Conference, Feb. 17, 2024. (David Hecker/MSC)
MUNICH, GERMANY — If U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris dominated the first day of the Munich Security Conference with her remarks, today it was German Chancellor Olaf Scholz’s and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky’s turn.
It was not only Zelensky who understandably devoted his whole speech to the Ukraine War but also Scholz, too. The German Chancellor, while boasting that his country will devote 2% of its GDP to defense expenditures this year, remarked that “we Europeans need to do much more for our security now and in the future.”
In a brief but clear reference to Trump’s recent statements on NATO, Scholz said, "any relativization of NATO’s mutual defense guarantee will only benefit those who, just like Putin, want to weaken us.” On the guns and butter debate, which is particularly relevant in Germany due to negligible economic growth, Scholz acknowledged that critical voices are saying, “should not we be using the money for other things?” But he chose not to engage in this debate, noting instead that “Moscow is fanning the flames of such doubts with targeted disinformation campaigns and with propaganda on social media.”
The Russian capture of the city represents the most significant defeat for Ukraine since the failure of its counter-offensive last year. On the loss of Avdiivka, Zelensky said that Ukraine had lost one soldier for every seven soldiers who have died on the Russian side. This, however, is difficult to reconcile with the reports about the rushed Ukrainian retreat, with a Ukrainian soldier explaining that “the road to Avdiivka is littered with our corpses.”
Throughout his speech, Zelensky repeatedly referred to the importance of defending what he called the “rules-based world order” by defeating Russia. If there was one take-away that Zelensky wanted impressed on this audience: “Please do not ask Ukraine when the war will end. Ask yourself why is Putin still able to continue it.”
He also seemed to suggest that it was not a lack of available weapons and artillery but a willingness to give them over to Ukraine. “Dear friends, unfortunately keeping Ukraine in the artificial deficit of weapons, particularly in deficit of artillery and long-range capabilities, allows Putin to adapt to the current intensity of the war,” Zelenskyy said. “The self-weakening of democracy over time undermines our joint results.”
The future of NATO was one of the main topics of the day. European leaders were in agreement that Europe needs to spend more on defense, and occasionally appeared to compete with each other on who has spent the most on weapons delivered to Ukraine or in their national defense budgets.
With NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in attendance, one of the panels featured two of the most talked-about names to replace the Norwegian politician in the 75th-anniversary summit in Washington in July: EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen and caretaker Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte. According to a report by the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag, President Joseph Biden and his Secretary of State Anthony Blinken favor the German leader, but in Paris, London, and Berlin, the Dutch politician is preferred.
The participation of the Netherlands in the initial U.S.-UK joint strikes against Houthi positions in Yemen on Jan. 11 was read in some quarters as a sign of Rutte’s ambitions. The Netherlands was the only EU country to join these initial attacks.
A G7 meeting of foreign ministers also took place Saturday on the sidelines of the conference. In a press briefing that followed, Italian Foreign Minister Antonio Tajani — who currently presides the G7 — reiterated the group’s support for Ukraine. The current situation in the Red Sea, as is often the case in the West, was presented by Tajani as a topic divorced from the Gaza Strip. The Houthis started their campaign against ships in the Red Sea after the beginning of the war in Gaza, claiming they want to force an end to the conflict.
There is no certainty that the end of the war in Gaza would put an end to Houthi attacks, but presenting the situation in the Red Sea as being nothing but a threat to freedom of trade is considered by experts to be a a myopic approach.
Nevertheless, Italy will be in command of the new EU naval mission ASPIDES, to be deployed soon in the Red Sea. The mission is expected to be approved by the next meeting of EU foreign affairs ministers on Monday. When asked whether he could ensure that ASPIDES would remain a defensive mission, the Italian Foreign Minister said ASPIDES aims at defending merchant ships and that if drones or missiles are launched, they will be shot down, but no attacks will be conducted.
Marc Martorell Junyent is in Munich, covering the conference for Responsible Statecraft this weekend. This story is developing and is being updated.
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Vice President Kamala Harris at the Munich Security Conference, Feb. 16, 2024. (Lukas Barth-Tuttas/MSC)
MUNICH, GERMANY – The 60th year of the Munich Security Conference opened today with much of the early energy surrounding remarks by Vice President Kamala Harris.
The vice president noted that it was nearly two years since the beginning of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on Feb. 24, 2022. She said that when Putin unleashed his troops along different fronts in February 2022, “many thought Kyiv would fall within a day.” It is also true, as she pointed out, that “Ukraine has regained more than half the territory Russia occupied at the start of the conflict.” (Russia held about 7% before the invasion, 27% right after, and about 18% today.)
However, by choosing the first months of the war as the starting point of her speech, Harris sought to avoid the obvious. Namely, that in the year that has gone by since her last visit to Munich, the Ukrainian army has been losing ground. Yet, her remarks regarding Ukraine today did not differ much from her speech in 2023.
Harris seemed dedicated to keeping to the administration’s recent script, which is warning against heralding in a new era of “isolationism,” referring to President Biden's likely presidential election opponent, Donald Trump.
As president Biden and I have made clear over the past three years, we are committed to pursue global engagement, to uphold international rules and norms, to defend democratic values at home and abroad, and to work with our allies and partners in pursuit of shared goals.
As I travel throughout my country and the world, it is clear to me: this approach makes America strong. And it keeps Americans safe.
Interestingly, the U.S. has been accused of thwarting "international rules and norms" in its unconditional support of Israel’s war on Gaza, which has killed upwards of 29,000 Palestinians, mostly of them civilians, since Hamas’s Oct. 7 invasion of Israel and hostage-taking. Christoph Heusgen, the chairman of the Munich Security Conference, asked Harris whether a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine was achievable. Harris answered that “the short answer is yes… but we must then put the discussion in context, starting with October 7.” Not 1948, not 1967, but October 7, 2023.
Her prepared remarks on the situation were very brief, overall, saying:
In the Middle East, we are working to end the conflict that Hamas triggered on October 7th as soon as possible and ensure it ends in a way where Israel is secure, hostages are released, the humanitarian crisis is resolved, Hamas does not control Gaza, and Palestinians can enjoy their right to security, dignity, freedom, and self-determination.
This work — while we also work to counter aggression from Iran and its proxies, prevent regional escalation, and promote regional integration.
October 7 was the topic of a conference side event hosted by Brigadier-General Gal Hirsch, Israel’s Coordinator for Hostages and Missing. In his opening speech, he called for a Global War on Kidnapping inspired by George Bush’s War on Terror. Hirsch was short on the specifics, and Israeli foreign minister Israel Katz did not develop the concept further when he followed Hirsch at the podium. During the event, several hostages released during the short ceasefire between Israel and Hamas in November 2023 described their harrowing experiences in captivity. Relatives of the remaining hostages accompanied them.
Meanwhile, in a morning event, German Finance Minister Christian Lindner and Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis discussed how to increase defense spending in a time of economic stagnation. Mitsotakis, whose country has always spent significantly more than the expected 2% of the GDP required by NATO, stated that defense policy cannot be done on a budget. Lindner, meanwhile, remarked that Germany is on the way to spending 2% of its GDP on defense. Economic prosperity, the German Liberal minister noted, should avoid tradeoffs between social and defense policies. This is certainly a difficult equation to square since the German government just announced it was reviewing its forecast for GDP growth in 2024 from 1.3% down to 0.2%.
Marc Martorell Junyent is in Munich, covering the conference for Responsible Statecraft this weekend. This story is developing.