Prof. Dr. Heinz Gärtner is lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the University of Vienna and at Danube University. He was academic director of the Austrian Institute for International Affairs. He has held various Fulbright Fellowships and the Austrian Chair at Stanford University. He was Austrian Marshall Plan Foundation Fellow at the Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. Among other things, he chairs the advisory board of the commission Strategy and Security of the Austrian Armed Forces and of the International Institute for Peace in Vienna. He is an expert for EU and Euratom programs at the European Commission. He has published widely on issues of international security.