Esfandyar Batmanghelidj is a visiting fellow with the Middle East and North Africa programme at the European Council on Foreign Relations. He is the founder and CEO of the Bourse & Bazaar Foundation, a think tank focused on economic diplomacy, economic development, and economic justice in the Middle East and Central Asia. He has published peer reviewed research on Iranian political economy, social history, and public health, as well as commentary on Iranian politics and economics. He is also a principle member of a research project on the humanitarian impact of sanctions hosted by the Graduate Institute in Geneva and funded by the Swiss Network for International Studies. He is a graduate of Columbia University.